Age-Related Cognitive Decline

Also indexed as:Age-Associated Memory Impairment, Age-Consistent Memory Decline, ARCD, Benign Senescent Forgetfulness, Cognitive Decline (Age-Related), Forgetfulness (Benign Senescent), Memory Decline (Age-Consistent)
With a little help you can reduce the effects of ARCD, such as memory problems. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
1,500 mg daily3 stars[3 stars]
Several clinical trials suggest that this supplement delays onset of ARCD and improves overall cognitive function in the elderly
120 to 160 mg daily3 stars[3 stars]
Most, but not all, clinical trials have found this herb to be a safe and effective treatment for ARCD.
300 mg daily of bovine-derived supplement 3 stars[3 stars]
Bovine-derived PS (phosphatidylserine) has been shown to improve memory, cognition, and mood in the elderly. To date, most evidence suggests that soy-derived PS is not effective for ARCD.
Refer to label instructions 2 stars[2 stars]
Animal studies have found this Ayurvedic herb enhances several aspects of mental function and learning ability, and there is some preliminary research that it improves mental function in humans.
Folic Acid

(In people with high homocysteine)
800 mcg per day 2 stars[2 stars]
Folic acid has been shown to slow the rate of cognitive decline in people with high homocysteine levels and in elderly people.
100 to 150 mcg two to three times per day2 stars[2 stars]
Huperzine A, an extract from a Chinese medicinal herb, has been found to improve cognitive function in seniors with memory disorders.
150 mg per day 2 stars[2 stars]
A study of healthy senior people reported that supplementing daily with Pycnogenol improved some measures of memory after three months, compared with a group taking a placebo.
30 to 60 mg daily2 stars[2 stars]
Vinpocetine has been shown to improve dementia symptoms in patients with various brain diseases.
Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid
100 mcg per day of vitamin B12 and 400 mcg per day of folic acid2 stars[2 stars]
In a double-blind trial, supplementing with vitamin B12 and folic acid for 2 years slowed the rate of cognitive decline, compared with placebo, in elderly volunteers.
Vitamin B6
20 mg daily2 stars[2 stars]
There is evidence that supplementing with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) may improve memory performance, especially in people who are deficient.
Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid

(For women with low dietary intake )
Refer to label instructions 2 stars[2 stars]
In women with cardiovascular disease or related risk factors and low dietary intake of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, supplementing with a combination of these nutrients may protect against age-related cognitive decline.
Refer to label instructions 1 star[1 star]
Some, though not all, research has found astaxanthin might protect the brain from age-related oxidative damage.
50 mg every other day 1 star[1 star]
In one study, long-term beta-carotene supplementation slowed the loss of cognitive function in middle-aged healthy males.
Refer to label instructions 1 star[1 star]
Cognitive function is linked to adequate sleep and normal sleep-wake cycles, which are partially regulated by the hormone melatonin. The long-term effects of melatonin are unknown, use under a doctor’s supervision.
Refer to label instructions 1 star[1 star]
In a preliminary trial of individuals with mild cognitive impairment and low blood levels of selenium, the improvement in measures of cognitive function was significantly greater in the group eating Brazil nuts than in the control group.
Vitamin C
Refer to label instructions 1 star[1 star]
Use of vitamin C, alone or with vitamin E, has been associated with better cognitive function and a reduced risk of certain forms of dementia (not including Alzheimer’s disease).
Vitamin E
Refer to label instructions 1 star[1 star]
Use of vitamin E, alone or with vitamin C, has been associated with better cognitive function and a reduced risk of certain forms of dementia (but not Alzheimer’s disease).
  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

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The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.

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